There are two main types of excavators, one is tire excavator and the other is crawler excavator. Both configurations have their pros and cons. You first need to determine which configuration best suits your needs.
Then you need to decide whether you need a “standard” excavator or a specially configured excavator. There are not many structural differences between different excavators, even from one brand to another, an excavator is a versatile machine that usually only requires changing tools depending on the job that needs to be done.
However, some configurations apply to specific conditions, such as:
The arms of the demolition excavator can be reached to the top of the building using the demolition tool. The cab is usually protected from falling material and can be tilted upwards to allow the operator to see where he is doing the work. .
The Zero Swing Excavator can rotate without exceeding the surface of the machine, enabling it to work near walls without the danger of touching them.
Walking excavators are equipped with articulated “outriggers” that enable them to work on steep or rough terrain.
The utility excavator has an arm with additional joints to increase the range of movement, thereby increasing the versatility of the machine.
There are also road-rail models for working on railways, amphibious models for working on bodies of water, etc.
The main selection criteria for an excavator are its size and power. The size of a machine is characterized by its working weight (for example, we can say: a 10-ton excavator). Available in a variety of sizes, from the smallest models of less than 1 ton to surface mining excavators greater than 100 tons.
You need to choose an excavator that suits your needs, a model that is too small may not do the job required, and a model that is too large may be unwieldy and more expensive.
The weight of the excavator can give an idea of the overall size of the machine, but it is important to ensure that the robotic arm can reach the maximum distance it has to work. Most manufacturers provide diagrams in their technical documentation that represent the motion of the robotic arm to indicate the maximum height and depth that can be achieved.
Another important factor is the power of the engine, which powers the hydraulics that power the robotic arm and the tools mounted on the arm. The engine is related to the size of the machine, but can also vary, a more powerful engine capable of performing more difficult jobs.
Most excavators are equipped with diesel engines, although in recent years we have seen the emergence of some hybrid diesel/electric engines equipped with energy recovery systems.
Therefore, excavators must comply with the pollution prevention standards in force in the countries in which they are used, most notably the grading system in the United States and the emission standards in Europe.
Once the main characteristics of the desired excavator have been determined, the excavator can also be selected based on criteria such as the ergonomics of the driving position, comfort, work aids or noise level.